Off 2,087 earliest-seasons people whom undergone an over-all examination (pre-university) and you can done questionnaires within Health Service Cardiovascular system of Okayama School for the , 1,396 college students volunteered to get a beneficial step three-year pursue-right up test in advance of graduation inside (follow-up price; 66.9%). Because of it studies, we sensed professionals that have good Bmi off ? twenty-five.0 kg yards ?2 once the obese (16) . We omitted 82 users who have been over weight (Bmi ? twenty-five kilogram yards ?2 ) in the the baseline wellness test. Eventually, analysis from one,314 people (676 male and you can 638 women; 65.3%) was in fact examined. The research was approved by the Integrity Committee out-of Okayama College Scholar College regarding Medicine, Oral and you can Drug Sciences (No. 306). Created agree try taken from the players.
Research from heavy/being obese
From the all around health examination, the newest top and body weight regarding participants was mentioned by university’s public fitness nurses using the Tanita body fat analyser (Model Zero. BF-220; Tanita, Tokyo, Japan). Body mass index is determined because pounds in kilograms separated because of the top within the m squared (23) .
Professionals advertised speed out-of https://datingranking.net/pl/tsdates-recenzja/ dining according to someone else, considering certainly one of four qualitative classes: slow, regular, quick, and extremely punctual. The fresh authenticity and precision of your own questionnaire has already been verified and useful comparing relationships anywhere between notice-stated dinner rates and you will being obese (24) . I mutual punctual and extremely quick answers towards the one group of eating easily and you may sluggish and you may typical answers on the just one group of restaurants slow (8) .
With other life points, responses received from the players inside a great “yes/no” style as follows: an uneven eating plan (we.age., irregular mealtime), missing morning meal, food until complete, seem to snacking and you can/or dining at night, appear to consuming saturated fats, apparently food green vegetables, frequently food unhealthy food, appear to food chocolate, apparently consuming (sugar-sweetened) sodas, normal physical activity, and you will chronic consuming (sixteen, 20) . The newest questionnaire are used on standard.
Paired t, unpaired t, Fisher’s exact, and chi-squared tests were used to determine whether there were any significant differences between baseline and re-examination, or normal weight and overweight groups. Using a logistic regression model, both odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Being overweight at the 3-year follow-up was used as a dependent variable. Gender, eating quickly, and frequently consuming fatty foods at baseline were added as independent variables on multivariate analysis according to the guidelines of a previous study (25) . All data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (21.0J for Windows; SPSS Japan, Tokyo, Japan). A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
There were no significant differences in prevalence of eating quickly and body composition at baseline between participants who were followed up and those who were not (data not shown). Table 1 shows the characteristics of participants. Overall, 207 male (30.2%) and 198 female (31.0%) participants reported eating quickly. Of the 38 participants (2.9%) who became overweight, none were obese (BMI ? 30 kg m ?2 ). There was a significant difference in body composition between baseline and re-examination data (P < 0.05).
- a mean ± fundamental deviation.
- bP < 0.05, paired t test. Baseline vs. after 3 years.
- cP < 0.05, ? 2 test.
- dn (%).
In both male and female participants, a higher prevalence of those who ate quickly was observed in the overweight group compared with the normal weight group (P < 0.05). The prevalence of participants who ate quickly and frequently consumed fatty foods was significantly higher in the overweight group than in the normal weight group (P < 0.05).
- a keen (%).